So, Finally here I go with an article on CDC (Change Data Capture) implementation through an informatica which had been a long waiting from my side to be posted.

Requirement – To track on the data change in the source system with the earlier data pulled into the warehouse and to track on Updates, new Inserts and Delete on the data that is no more in the source. I would continue on this CDC implementation with an another article on loading of data forward into a table to save the change history for the data user to keep a track on the change history.

Mapping Design:

The mapping I have come up with for the CDC logic would be as below,



(Click on the image for a better view)

The mapping would involve the Staging/source table which would be a daily truncate load from the source system as is with the current status on the transactions from a source. And the data are then to be sorted with respect to the primary key columns, sample table used would be as below. The sample implies on the target CDC table to have the same composite primary key columns.

Source Table:


Target Table:


The mapping would involve a simple logic to have a joiner (Full Outer Join) with the source table and the Target CDC table and to check for the matching and non matching records on the Primary key columns as is illustrated below,


This being a Full Outer Join, enables the loading of all matching and non matching transactions to flow through and then the following three expressions should be defined to check on the Change type,


ISNULL(TransactionID) AND ISNULL(ProductID) AND ISNULL(ReferenceOrderID) and ISNULL(ReferenceOrderLineID)



ISNULL(TransactionID_old) AND ISNULL(ProductID_old) AND ISNULL(ReferenceOrderID_old) AND ISNULL(ReferenceOrderLineID_old)



TransactionID=TransactionID_old AND

ProductID=ProductID_old AND

ReferenceOrderID=ReferenceOrderID_old AND

ReferenceOrderLineID=ReferenceOrderLineID_old AND

(TransactionDate != TransactionDate_old OR

TransactionType != TransactionType_old OR

Quantity != Quantity_old OR

ABS(ActualCost – ActualCost_old)>1)


Flag => IIF(v_Flag_Update=1,-1,IIF(v_Flag_Insert=1,-2,IIF(v_Flag_Delete=1,-3,0)))

where ‘0’ is for no change records, and then to use a filter transformation to filter out all the no change transactions with Flag=0.

Then a Router to define the grouping as per the result of the above expression on checking if the Transaction is an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE.



(Click on the image for a better view)

And the Update strategy transformation for each to perform and Update or Insert for each, and to note even for DELETE flags I will be going for a DD_UPDATE, which would update the CDC flag for the transactions not available in the source system to ‘D’ in the target table.

Also to note, that the Delete flow, would involve pulling the ports of CDC source table from the Router to the target and Update on the key column matching records with CDC_Flag=’D’.

And finally to make the session level changes for each target to define ‘Update as Update’ or ‘Update as Insert’ for the targets respectively. Upon running the mapping for the first time all transactions would be tagged as INSERT and then the proceeding runs will then depend on the source system changes to be captured through the CDC logic of our mapping.

Note – The DELETE transactions are the one which are no more in the source table, and hence these once after being tagged as ‘D’ for the CDC_Flag can be deleted from the target CDC table as well after making use of the change on to the History tracking table which will be covered more in detail with the next article shortly.

I will shortly be posting another phase of this topic on CDC and on tracking of history on a transaction change in your warehouse with the CDC. Hope you enjoyed reading this and helps you. Please post your comments and feedback for a better work and clear ideas. Thanks! !


Hello all, I am today going to discuss and brief on some key best practices that i have followed or have come across in my experience with Informatica. Most of the best practices are specific to keep low the ambiguity and make it easy for every other developer around you to understand or share the work and few with intention to have a better performance without making things complex. Let’s quickly go through them,


Shortcuts (Shared Folder) – The uses of shared folder to use the sources/targets around multiple folders keeps your repository and objects less and clean. A shared folder allows you make the best use of re-usability in Informatica and maintains consistence and standard and keeps the code in tact with less number of duplicate objects being created.

Re-usability – It’s always good to take advantage of re-usability options on Informatica with the Mapplets, Worklets, reusable transformations, tasks etc. which highly reduces effort on design and keeps things simple.

Simplicity – This is the practice to keep your mapping/code as much as simple as you can, it can be good to have multiple mapping to do things rather than one to do something more complex. Mapping or your code should be easier to understand and debug in the future.

Source-Qualifier – It’s the place where you can tap your required data and filter out unnecessary column /rows that are no were relevant to our requirement. It’s always good to tap out the data at SQ rather than allowing them to be processed and being filtered at a later part of your mapping.

Filter Transformation – It’s the best you use your Filters as close as possible to the Source, to allow lesser data to travel across your mapping and thus improving the performance of your mapping with minimal data.

Most important of all, avoid complex expressions and logic on your filter condition, it’s always good you make them all in your Expression transformation and decide with a Flag port that travels on to the Filter and makes the Filter transformation far too simple and better.

Expression Transformation – It’s always good using more operators (||,+,/) rather than Functions where ever required, and also the processing and loading of Integer type data is always the faster compared to String type. Good to make use of local variables and keep the calculations as much as simple as possible with multiple variables being used to breakdown the complex calculations to less redundant and easy to understand one.

Joiners – If possible, join the data at the SQ, and in case of must to go for a JOINER transformation make sure you use the Source with less records used as the Master and the other source as the Detail which has more records to process.

Parameterize your code – Wherever possible it’s always the best thing to do is to parameterize your code, this helps in making the code easy for any future changes to be made with no change on the Informatica code. Avoid hard coding values, and parameterize them which can ease for any changes going forward.

SQL Query – Always the most important thing to check for is how good your SQ or any SQL related process will work on the DB side. Your source/target relational object on the DB side should be good enough to handle any UPDATE/INSERT/SELECT process more effectively. Go for the SQL execution plan, and accordingly add Indexes (Clustered/Non-Clustered) as and when required on THE DB table.

Router transformation – Always use a less complex conditional expression on the Groups of your Router, avoiding any calculation/function being performed row wise at your router eating away more time and memory in running your session. Instead do your conditional checks for grouping on the expression prior to loading to the Router and just keep it to a Flag which decides the Grouping on the Router making it perform at its best. Never use a Filter after a Router, which makes it logic less use, as the Router is to perform a Group, and hence the filters can be added alongside the logic of your Grouping (which again can be handles at an expression in getting the Flags to group by).

Lookups – Also try using unconnected lookups wherever we can as it gives space for re using the same Lookup multiple times and can use the same value to test/calculate in expression. Use Filter on your Lookup source to avoid Caching in unwanted data thus optimizing the Cache use improving the performance. Try using a Joiner instead of a connected lookup wherever possible.

In case you use a Unconnected lookup and wish to return multiple values to expression, then concatenate the columns and after returning the value go for splitting the values J

Union Transformation – The lesser the Union transformation, better is your mapping performance. Try avoid using Unions and if used keep the number to minimal by trying to Union the source on SQ itself as the Union consumes a lot of Memory and time in processing being an active transformation.

I will keep updating this Post further more with some more points on best practices in Informatica i might come across. Please do share if you have any and that can help people around here. Learning and Sharing is a joy 🙂

Lets have some lights on to the basic Architecture of PowerCenter which is an ABCD learning for any Informatica Developer. Its good we know how and where our Infa objects gets created and how the way it runs in the back end.

So as we might be well aware of the multi-tier architecture of our Informatica, having a Client Server model with different services running together for what we just see on the PowerCenter client as objects created, deleted and run. As a developer, we must be well aware of the Repository database and its purpose, saves all the meta data on the objects in Informatica.


As in here we have the two major services, Repository Services and the Integration Services. The Repository services helps in communication between the PowerCenter components responding to the PC Client and getting in the Repository Database with a native driver connection for the meta data.

PowerCenter Client uses native protocol to communicate with the PowerCenter Repository Service and PowerCenter Integration Service.The PowerCenter Client uses ODBC to connect to source and target databases.

How it works:

When we use the PC Client, and we create a Domain connection with a gateway from the client tool we have the service manager in the server which then connects to the PowerCenter Repository Services with a TCP/IP connection established. Also we define the Repository Database which is defined while installation of Informatica and is connected with a native driver connection from the Repository services to the Database.

Every time a job/task runs it is run through the Client connecting with the Integration service which in turn interacts with the Repository services to get the Repository objects from the Repository Database. It uses TCP/IP to connect to the associated PowerCenter Repository Service and retrieve metadata.

The ODBC Connection in the Client/Integration services:
When ever we try creating source/target on our client machine we have an independent ODBC connections created through the client machine and the Integration Services runs with the similar way by connecting to the source through a ODBC/Native connection established and defined already.

The Flow:

The flow runs as, when we connect to a client (eg. Workflow Manager) a Repository connection is made with the Repository services which retrieves meta data connecting to the Repository database as per the request from the client. Then as we run a workflow, the Client connects to the Integration services and the Command is fetched by the Integration service to connect with the Source/Target through an ODBC connection to fetch the data or write the output. The IS then interacts with the Repository services for the Infa object metadata and the process runs as defined in the mapping in the Integration services.

Hope this gives a bit of clarity on the backstage working of our Informatica. Do let me know your suggestions or corrections and queries on this article.

Important Points:

The parameters are detected by the Informatica IS with a $$ and takes the parameter name from the $$ till the occurrence of the ‘=’ symbol, anything between $$ and = shall be considered as the parameter name.

Similarly any value from the ‘=’ till the end of the line shall be considered as the value to the respective parameter.

The parameter files are saved with an extension .prm

There are different levels of precedence of the parameters,

The mapping level precedence

This is the least precedence level, defined as initial value in the mapping designer itself.

The Global precedence:

These are the parameters defined in the whole workflow’s parameter files, directly as parameters.




The Session level precedence:

The session level parameters are defined in the workflow’s parameter file with the session name, this has the precedence over the global parameters.





So here in the session ‘s_sample_session_name’, the ‘’$$Param_test” holds the value 2012 and not the 2011 for the higher precedence by the session level parameter.

The Session Param file precedence:

There can also be a separate parameter file that can be defined for a session, where the parameter value defined in this param file takes the higher precedence than the one defined in the workflow’s param file.

The Path defined parameter precedence:

There can be situations where a reusable session used in two different worklets can need two different param values at two instances. This can be very well achieved by indicating the specific session name through its worklet as in the below example.


If s_session_test1 is used in WKLT_workletA and WKLT_workletB with two different values, then we can define the parameter value as,





So the same session uses the same parameter, but with different values at different worklets.

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